- 1 Overview
- 2 Initial state and experiment duration
- 3 Control run
- 4 Atmospheric forcing: SMB and temperature anomalies
- 5 Oceanic forcing: temperature, salinity, thermal forcing and melt rate parameterization
- 6 Antarctic fracture
- 7 Requirements for the standard experiments
- 8 Requirements for the open experiments
- 9 Experiment Ranking
- 10 References
- 11 Appendix 1 – Output grid definition and interpolation
- 12 Appendix 2 – Naming conventions, upload and model output data.
- 13 Appendix 3 – Participating Models and Characteristics.
NOTE: THIS PAGE IS UNDER CONSTRUCTION. WHEN IT IS FINISHED, THIS STATEMENT WILL BE REMOVED
This page describes the experimental protocol for the ISMIP6 projections that target the upcoming IPCC AR6 assessment. Due to the delay in CMIP6 climate simulations, the initial set of ISMIP6 simulations are based on CMIP5 projections. As CMIP6 model output become available, ISMIP6 will include simulations based on these models.
The experimental framework was revised in September 2018 during an ISMIP6 workshop held in Sassenheim (NL). The protocol, summarized in Fig 1, allows for:
• Sampling CMIP scenarios: main focus is on the high emission RCP8.5, but ice sheet evolution in response to low emission RCP2.6 is also investigated.
• Sampling CMIP models: 6 AOGCMs have been selected from the CMIP5 model ensemble. The AOGCMs were identified based on the following steps: 1) present plausible climates near Antarctica (evaluated by model biases over the historical period), and 2) sample a diversity of forcing (evaluated by differences in projections and code similarities).
• Sampling ice sheet model uncertainty: "standard" and "open" experiments. The "standard" experiments are based on parameterizations developed by the ocean and atmospheric focus groups, while "open" experiments utilize the parameterizations already in use by respective ice sheet models.
• Sampling forcing uncertainty: the standard experiments include "high", "mid" and "low" parameters.
• Experiment ranking: This experimental framework results in 12 to 72 experiments, and a control run. Not every ice sheet model will be able to carry out the full set of experiments. The experiments are therefore ranked, groups are encouraged to work shown the list and complete as many experiments as possible. This approach is based on Shannon et al. (2013): it ensures that all groups do a subset of identical experiments, while it also allows faster models to explore the experiment space more fully.
Initial state and experiment duration
Groups can reuse their initMIP initial state, or start from a new initial state. To facilitate analysis of the sea level projections resulting from the ISMIP6 suite of ice sheet model simulations, ISMIP6 uses January 1995 to December 2014 as reference period. The experiments start on January 2015 and end in December 2100. The cut off date is constrained by the availability of forcing.
The control run is needed to evaluate model drift. As in the initMIP setup, the control run is obtained by running the model forward without any anomaly forcing, such that whatever surface mass balance (SMB) was used in the initialization technique would continue unchanged.
Atmospheric forcing: SMB and temperature anomalies
ISMIP6 will provide surface forcing datasets for the Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) based on CMIP global climate model (GCM) simulations. Two basic approaches are possible: using GCM output directly, or re-interpreting the GCM climates through higher-resolution regional climate models (RCMs). The later allows to capture narrow regions at the periphery of the ice sheet with large SMB gradients, which are not captured by CMIP5 GCMs, and is the technique used for the Greenland ice sheet. For the Antarctic CMIP5 based projections, RCMs will not be used. Many of the GCMs that have indicated participation in ISMIP6 use multiple elevation classes to downscale SMB to finer grid resolution. Once these models have completed the CMIP6 projections, our goal is to include additional ISMIP6 projections using SMB downscaled via elevation class.
As a further complication, experience with initMIP shows that there is a wide variation in ice-sheet profiles, extents and forcing requirements across the ISMs that will be used. For the forcing datasets to be usable, they must be able to be used flexibly, and not be tied to a single ice-sheet shape that may have existed in a GCM or RCM. The revised experimental framework described here takes into account the wide variation in ice-sheet profiles.
Forcing will consist of anomalies of surface mass balance and surface temperature. SMB is needed by ISMs to compute mass changes at the surface, and surface temperature (i.e., the ice temperature at the base of the snow, as distinct from the 2-m air temperature or skin temperature) is used by many ISMs as an upper boundary condition. SMB will be given in units of kg m-2 s-1, and surface temperature in units of deg C. The units of SMB_anomaly are (meter ice equivalent/year) with an assumed density of 910 kg/m^3 and 31556926 s/yr. The following remarks refer mostly to SMB, but the same comments would generally apply to surface temperature as well.
The SMB and its anomalies will be provided on the ISMIP6 standard ice sheet grid for Antarctica. ISMs will then horizontally interpolate the anomaly forcing from the standard grid to their native grids. Before applying SMB anomalies, ISMs will need to be initialized by applying a baseline SMB (either a time series or a climatology). ISMIP6 will provide SMB climatologies for the reference period (January 1995 to December 2014) from the same models computing the anomalies. ISMs can use these these climatologies for spin-up, if desired, but are free to use their own preferred SMB forcing. Let SMB_ref(x,y) denote the SMB used to initialize the ISM. If a time-dependent SMB is used for spin-up, then SMB_ref(x,y) is the average over the reference period.
ISMIP6 provides yearly averaged surface mass balance anomalies, aSMB(x,y,t), along with its components (precipitation, evaporation and runoff). During the run, SMB is computed as:
SMB(x,y,t) = SMB_ref(x,y) + aSMB(x,y,t).
The datasets can be obtained via the ISMIP6 ftp server (email firstname.lastname@example.org to obtain the login information).
ADD DATA PATH WHEN DATA IS ON THE SERVER
Modeling groups should use the 8km version to conservatively interpolate to their model native grid (see Appendix 1, below). Files of higher/lower resolution (1km, 2km, 4km, 16km, and 32km) are provided for groups using the output grid as “native grid”.
To DO: check units for SMB and Temp from the AOGCM. are these the same as the output in the GMD paper? Ans: GMD paper/initMIP data request say temp = kelvin, SMB= kg m-2 s-1. Unit of SMB_anomaly for initMIP m ice equivalent / year
Oceanic forcing: temperature, salinity, thermal forcing and melt rate parameterization
ISMIP6 provides datasets of extrapolated ocean "ambient" temperature (T), salinity (S) and thermal forcing (TF) from 1850-2100 that are appropriate for present and future ice-shelf cavities. These datasets originate from CMIP models and have been extrapolated under ice shelves, using rules that account for sills and troughs. The yearly anomalies are with respect to the reference climatology, which is also provided. The datasets are on the 8km ISMIP6 Antarctic grid (add link to grid info). More information on how the datasets were produced is available in the presentations and webinar that can be retrieved from: ftp://cryoftp1.gsfc.nasa.gov/ISMIP6/Ocean_Forcing/Antarctica or at https://github.com/xylar/ismip6-ocean-forcing
ISMIP6 standard approach was developed by the Antarctic ocean focus group, and consist of two approaches for the parameterization of basal melt. These are described in ftp://cryoftp1.gsfc.nasa.gov/ISMIP6/Ocean_Forcing/Antarctica/parameterizations/melt_parameterization_ISMIP6.pdf
The first approach, a non-local quadratic melting parameterization, is the preferred method for ISMIP6 simulations. However, an alternative (and easier to implement) takes the form of a local quadratic melting parameterization. Example codes for both parameterizations can be found in the "parameterizations" directory. In addition to the annual forcing datasets needed for use with the parameterizations, parameters needed to sample the uncertainty in the melt evaluations are also provided.
TO DO: Think of a pretty figure
Surface melting can trigger ice shelf collapse (for example, the Larsen B ice shelf in the Antarctic Peninsula). This mechanism is separate from cliff-collapse, but is a precursor to cliff-collapse. Although the mechanisms for Larsen B-style ice shelf collapse are still poorly understood, ISMIP6 provides dataset of surface melt obtained from CMIP near surface air temperature (tas) following the method described in Trusel et al. (2015). These annual surface melt have been bias-corrected, and are available on the 4, 5, 8, 10, 16, 20, 32, 40, and 64 km ISMIP6 grids from: give ftp link
Implementation of Larsen B-style collapse not only requires an indication of the timing of the collapse (when surface melt has reached a certain threshold), but also ice flow regime that is favorable to collapse. DO WE HAVE ANY GUIDANCE????
Requirements for the standard experiments
• Participants can and are encouraged to contribute with different models and/or initialisation methods
• Models have to be able to prescribe a given SMB anomaly
• Adjustment of SMB due to geometric changes in forward experiments is encouraged.
• Bedrock adjustment in forward experiment is allowed.
• The choice of model input data is unconstrained to allow participants the use of their preferred model setup without modification. Modelers without preferred data set choice can have a look at the ISMIP6 Datasets page for possible options.
• To allow for analysis, any modeling choice needs to be well documented. Please follow the guidance for model output described in XXXX
Requirements for the open experiments
IS THIS NEEDED? DO WE HAVE ANYTHING DIFFERENT TO ADD COMPAIRED TO THE STANDARD EXP?
With the help of the atmosphere and ocean focus groups, 6 CMIP5 AOGCMs have been selected for ISMIP6 standalone ice sheet model projections. The table below lists the initial number of experiments based on the first three AOGCMs: MIROC_ESM_CHEM, NORESM1 and CCSM4. This table is the minimum contribution expected from ISMIP6 models. Groups that have their own methods for implementing ocean forcing, are encouraged to do the suite with "open" experiments. All groups are encouraged to contribute to the "standard" experiments. Depending on the results of experiments 3 and 7, which consider RCP2.6, additional AOGCMs may be suggested with RCP2.6 for models that are able to do many simulations, but these would be a lower priority than the completing the set with the 6 AOGCMs with RCP8.5.
Note: As of Jan 21, Xylar has processed the Ocean dataset for the 3 models, Luke has processed the surface melt based on his parameterization for the 3 models, Erika is preparing the SMB and surface temp for the 3 models. NORESM required computing runoff based on daily values, as there was a bug for the annual and monthly values
|0||N/A||N/A||Control||N/A||Model drift evaluation|
|1||8.5||AOGCM1||Open||Medium||Expected high SLR|
|2||8.5||AOGCM2||Open||Medium||Expected low SLR|
|3*||2.6||AOGCM2||Open||Medium||Expected high SLR|
|4||8.5||AOGCM3||Open||Medium||Expected mid SLR|
|5||8.5||AOGCM1||Standard||Medium||Expected high SLR|
|6||8.5||AOGCM2||Standard||Medium||Expected low SLR|
|7*||2.6||AOGCM2||Standard||Medium||Expected high SLR|
|8||8.5||AOGCM3||Standard||Medium||Expected mid SLR|
Franco et al. (2012) FINIR
Goelzer, H., Nowicki, S., Edwards, T., Beckley, M., Abe-Ouchi, A., Aschwanden, A., Calov, R., Gagliardini, O., Gillet-Chaulet, F., Golledge, N. R., Gregory, J., Greve, R., Humbert, A., Huybrechts, P., Kennedy, J. H., Larour, E., Lipscomb, W. H., Le clec'h, S., Lee, V., Morlighem, M., Pattyn, F., Payne, A. J., Rodehacke, C., Rückamp, M., Saito, F., Schlegel, N., Seroussi, H., Shepherd, A., Sun, S., van de Wal, R., and Ziemen, F. A. (2018). Design and results of the ice sheet model initialisation experiments initMIP-Greenland: an ISMIP6 intercomparison, The Cryosphere, 12, 1433-1460, doi:10.5194/tc-12-1433-2018.
Le clec’h et al. (2017) FINIR
Shannon, S.R., Payne A.J., Bartholomew I.D., Van Den Broeke M.R., Edwards T.L., Fettweis X., Gagliardini O., Gillet-Chaulet F., Goelzer H., Hoffman M.J., Huybrechts P. (2013) Enhanced basal lubrication and the contribution of the Greenland ice sheet to future sea-level rise, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(35):14156-61.
Appendix 1 – Output grid definition and interpolation
All 2D data is requested on a regular grid with the following description. Polar stereo-graphic projection with standard parallel at 71° S and a central meridian of 0° W on datum WGS84. The lower left corner is at (-3040000 m, -3040000 m) and the upper right at (3040000 m, 3040000 m). This is the same grid used to provide the SMB and basal melting anomaly forcings. The output should be submitted on a resolution adapted to the resolution of the model and can be 32km, 16 km, 8 km, 4 km, 2 km or 1 km. The data will be stored on this resolution for archiving and conservatively interpolated on a 8 km resolution for diagnostic processing by ISMIP6. Output should be provided with single precision.
If interpolation is required in order to transform the SMB forcing (1 km grid data) to your native grid, and transform your model variables to the initMIP output grid (32 km, 16 km, 8 km, 4 km, 2 km, 1 km), it is required that conservative interpolation is used. The motivation for using a common method for all models is to minimize model to model differences due to the choice of interpolation method.
A1.1 Regridding Tools and Tips
- An overview of the regridding process can be found on the Regridding page.
- Regridding_with_CDO contains tools and tips that have been used by ISMIP6 members.
- If you need help with conservative interpolation, please email ismip6-at-gmail.com.
Appendix 2 – Naming conventions, upload and model output data.
• one variable per file for all 2D fields (no need to provide coordinates)
• all variables in one file for the scalar variables
• a completed readme file
• single precision should be used for all output
A2.1 File name convention
File name convention for 2D fields:
File name convention for scalar variables:
File name convention for readme file:
<variable> = netcdf variable name (e.g. lithk)
<IS> = ice sheet (AIS or GIS)
<GROUP> = group acronym (all upper case or numbers, no special characters)
<MODEL> = model acronym (all upper case or numbers, no special characters)
<EXP> = experiment name (init, ctrl, asmb or abmb)
For example, a file containing the scalar variables for the Antarctic ice sheet, submitted by group “JPL” with model “ISSM” for experiment “ctrl” would be called: scalar_AIS_JPL_ISSM_ctrl.nc
If JPL repeats the experiments with a different version of the model (for example, by changing the sliding law), it could be named ISSM2, and so forth.
A2.2 Uploading your model output
Please upload your model output on the FTP server cryoftp1.gsfc.nasa.gov, and email email@example.com for the user name and latest password. Note sftp does not work!
After log in, go to the ISMIP6/initMIP/AIS/output directory via:
ftp> cd /ISMIP6/initMIP/AIS/output
and create a directory named <GROUP> with the following sub-directory structure:
<EXP_RES> should include both the experiment name and the output grid used to simplify the processing (e.g., asmb_08). Only the directory name should include this resolution, unlike the output files.
Create additional <MODEL> directories when participating with more than one model or model version.
An example of model output files can be found in /ISMIP6/initMIP/AIS/output/JPL1/ISSM/.
A2.3 Model output variables and README file
The README file is an important contribution to the initMIP submission. It may be obtained here or requested by email to ismip6-at-gmail.com
The variables requested in the table below serve to evaluate and compare the different models and initialization techniques. Some of the variables may not be applicable for your model, in which case they are to be omitted (with explanation in the README file).
We distinguish between state variables (ST) (e.g. ice thickness, temperatures and velocities) and flux variables (FL) (e.g. SMB). State variables should be given as snapshot information at the end of one year (for scalars variables) and five year periods (for 2D variables), while flux variables are to be averaged over the respective periods. Please specify in your README file how your reported flux data has been averaged over time. Ideally, the standard would be go average over all native time steps.
Flux variables are defined positive when the process adds mass to the ice sheet and negative otherwise.
Time should be defined in seconds since the beginning of the run (e.g., units should be "seconds since 2007-01-01 00:00:00").
Example model output files can be found in /ISMIP6/initMIP/AIS/output/JPL1/ISSM/ on the ftp server.
|Variable||Dim||Type||Variable Name||Standard Name||Units||Comment|
|2D variables requested every five years, starting at t=0, snapshots for type ST and as five year average for type FL.|
|Ice thickness||x,y,t||ST||lithk||land_ice_thickness||m||The thickness of the ice sheet|
|Surface elevation||x,y,t||ST||orog||surface_altitude||m||The altitude or surface elevation of the ice sheet|
|Base elevation||x,y,t||ST||base||base_altitude||m||The altitude of the lower ice surface elevation of the ice sheet|
|Bedrock elevation||x,y,t||ST||topg||bedrock_altitude||m||The bedrock topography (unchanged in forward exps.)|
|Geothermal heat flux||x,y||C||hfgeoubed||upward_geothermal_heat_flux_at_ground_level||W m-2||Geothermal Heat flux (unchanged in forward exps.)|
|Surface mass balance flux||x,y,t||FL||acabf||land_ice_surface_specific_mass_balance_flux||kg m-2 s-1||Surface Mass Balance flux|
|Basal mass balance flux||x,y,t||FL||libmassbf||land_ice_basal_specific_mass_balance_flux||kg m-2 s-1||Basal mass balance flux|
|Ice thickness imbalance||x,y,t||FL||dlithkdt||tendency_of_land_ice_thickness||m s-1||dHdt|
|Surface velocity in x||x,y,t||ST||uvelsurf||land_ice_surface_x_velocity||m s-1||u-velocity at land ice surface|
|Surface velocity in y||x,y,t||ST||vvelsurf||land_ice_surface_y_velocity||m s-1||v-velocity at land ice surface|
|Surface velocity in z||x,y,t||ST||wvelsurf||land_ice_surface_upward_velocity||m s-1||w-velocity at land ice surface|
|Basal velocity in x||x,y,t||ST||uvelbase||land_ice_basal_x_velocity||m s-1||u-velocity at land ice base|
|Basal velocity in y||x,y,t||ST||vvelbase||land_ice_basal_y_velocity||m s-1||v-velocity at land ice base|
|Basal velocity in z||x,y,t||ST||wvelbase||land_ice_basal_upward_velocity||m s-1||w-velocity at land ice base|
|Mean velocity in x||x,y,t||ST||uvelmean||land_ice_vertical_mean_x_velocity||m s-1||The vertical mean land ice velocity is the average from the bedrock to the surface of the ice|
|Mean velocity in y||x,y,t||ST||vvelmean||land_ice_vertical_mean_y_velocity||m s-1||The vertical mean land ice velocity is the average from the bedrock to the surface of the ice|
|Surface temperature||x,y,t||ST||litempsnic||temperature_at_ground_level_in_snow_or_firn||K||Ice temperature at surface|
|Basal temperature||x,y,t||ST||litempbot||land_ice_basal_temperature||K||Ice temperature at base|
|Basal drag||x,y,t||ST||strbasemag||magnitude_of_land_ice_basal_drag||Pa||Magnitude of basal drag|
|Calving flux||x,y,t||FL||licalvf||land_ice_specific_mass_flux_due_to_calving||kg m-1 s-1||Loss of ice mass resulting from iceberg calving. Only for grid cells in contact with ocean|
|Grounding line flux||x,y,t||FL||ligroundf||land_ice_specific_mass_flux_due_at_grounding_line||kg m-1 s-1||Loss of grounded ice mass resulting at grounding line. Only for grid cells in contact with grounding line|
|Land ice area fraction||x,y,t||ST||sftgif||land_ice_area_fraction||1||Fraction of grid cell covered by land ice (ice sheet, ice shelf, ice cap, glacier)|
|Grounded ice sheet area fraction||x,y,t||ST||sftgrf||grounded_ice_sheet_area_fraction||1||Fraction of grid cell covered by grounded ice sheet, where grounded indicates that the quantity correspond to the ice sheet that flows over bedrock|
|Floating ice sheet area fraction||x,y,t||ST||sftflf||floating_ice_sheet_area_fraction||1||Fraction of grid cell covered by ice sheet flowing over seawater|
|Scalar outputs requested every full year, as snapshots for type ST as 1 year averages for type FL. The t=0 value should contain the data of the initialization.|
|Total ice mass||t||ST||lim||land_ice_mass||kg||spatial integration, volume times density|
|Mass above floatation||t||ST||limnsw||land_ice_mass_not_displacing_sea_water||kg||spatial integration, volume times density|
|Grounded ice area||t||ST||iareag||grounded_land_ice_area||m^2||spatial integration|
|Floating ice area||t||ST||iareaf||floating_ice_shelf_area||m^2||spatial integration|
|Total SMB flux||t||FL||tendacabf||tendency_of_land_ice_mass_due_to_surface_mass_balance||kg s-1||spatial integration|
|Total BMB flux||t||FL||tendlibmassbf||tendency_of_land_ice_mass_due_to_basal_mass_balance||kg s-1||spatial integration|
|Total calving flux||t||FL||tendlicalvf||tendency_of_land_ice_mass_due_to_calving||kg s-1||spatial integration|
|Total grounding line flux||t||FL||tendligroundf||tendency_of_grounded_ice_mass||kg s-1||spatial integration|
Appendix 3 – Participating Models and Characteristics.
Antarctica Standalone Ice Sheet Modeling
TABLE WILL BE MADE WHEN SUBMISSIONS ARE COMING IN
TABLE WILL BE MADE WHEN SUBMISSIONS ARE COMING IN