- 1 Overview
- 2 Experiment Ranking
- 3 Initial state and experiment duration
- 4 Control Run and schematic forcing
- 5 Atmospheric forcing: SMB and temperature anomalies
- 6 Oceanic forcing: Calving and frontal melt
- 7 Requirements for the standard experiments
- 8 Requirements for the open experiments
- 9 References
- 10 Appendix 1 – Output grid definition and interpolation
- 11 Appendix 2 – Naming conventions, upload and model output data.
- 12 Appendix 3 – Participating Models and Characteristics
NOTE: THIS PAGE IS UNDER CONSTRUCTION. WHEN IT IS FINISHED, THIS STATEMENT WILL BE REMOVED
This page describes the experimental protocol for the ISMIP6 projections that target the upcoming IPCC AR6 assessment. Due to the delay in CMIP6 climate simulations, the initial set of ISMIP6 simulations are based on CMIP5 projections. As CMIP6 model output become available, ISMIP6 will include simulations based on these models.
The experimental framework was revised in September 2018 during an ISMIP6 workshop held in Sassenheim (NL). The protocol, summarized in Fig 1, allows for:
• Sampling CMIP scenarios: main focus is on the high emission RCP8.5, but ice sheet evolution in response to low emission RCP2.6 is also investigated.
• Sampling CMIP models: 6 AOGCMs have been selected from the CMIP5 model ensemble. The AOGCMs were identified based on the following steps: 1) present plausible climates near Greenland (evaluated by model biases over the historical period), 2) have the data at the temporal resolution needed for RCM downscaling, 3) sample a diversity of forcing (evaluated by differences in projections and code similarities).
• Sampling ice sheet model uncertainty: "standard" and "open" experiments. The "standard" experiments are based on parameterizations developed by the ocean and atmospheric focus groups, while "open" experiments utilize the parameterizations already in use by respective ice sheet models.
• Sampling forcing uncertainty: the standard experiments include "high", "mid" and "low" parameters.
• Experiment ranking: This experimental framework results in 12 to 72 experiments, and a control run. Not every ice sheet model will be able to carry out the full set of experiments. The experiments are therefore ranked, groups are encouraged to work shown the list and complete as many experiments as possible. This approach is based on Shannon et al. (2013): it ensures that all groups do a subset of identical experiments, while it also allows faster models to explore the experiment space more fully.
Figure 1: Overview of the Greenland experimental framework
With the help of the atmosphere and ocean focus groups, 6 CMIP5 AOGCMs have been selected for ISMIP6 standalone ice sheet model projections. The table below lists the initial number of experiments based on the first three AOGCMs: MIROC5, GIVE NAMES. This table is the minimum contribution expected from ISMIP6 models and should be worked on in order. Groups that have their own methods for implementing ocean HG:AND ATMOSPHERE forcing, are encouraged to do the suite of "open" experiments (1-4). All groups are expected to submit results for the "standard" experiments, using forcing methods suggested by ISMIP6. Depending on the results of experiments 3 and 7, which consider RCP2.6, additional AOGCMs may be suggested (exploring RCP2.6 in detail has low priority if the ISM response is very limited). Additional RCP2.6 experiments may be reserved for models that are able to do many simulations, but these would be of lower priority than completing the set with the 6 AOGCMs with RCP8.5.
Note: As of Jan 21, MAR has completed MIROC5 and NORESM for both RCP8.5 and RCP2.6. Greenland model selection team is actively working on final selection
|0||N/A||N/A||Control||N/A||Model drift evaluation|
|1||8.5||AOGCM1||Open||Medium||Expected high SLR|
|2||8.5||AOGCM2||Open||Medium||Expected low SLR|
|3*||2.6||AOGCM2||Open||Medium||Expected high SLR|
|4||8.5||AOGCM3||Open||Medium||Expected mid SLR|
|5||8.5||AOGCM1||Standard||Medium||Expected high SLR|
|6||8.5||AOGCM2||Standard||Medium||Expected low SLR|
|7*||2.6||AOGCM2||Standard||Medium||Expected high SLR|
|8||8.5||AOGCM3||Standard||Medium||Expected mid SLR|
Initial state and experiment duration
Groups can reuse their initMIP initial state. If they chose to start from a new initial state, rerunning the initMIP experiments ('ctrl', 'asmb') is required to place results with a new model version into context. To facilitate analysis of the sea-level projections resulting from the ISMIP6 suite of ice sheet model simulations, ISMIP6 uses January 1995 to December 2014 as reference period. The experiments start on January 2015 and end in December 2100. The cutoff date is constrained by the availability of forcing data.
Control Run and schematic forcing
The control run ('ctrl') is needed to evaluate model drift. As in the initMIP setup, the control run is obtained by running the model forward without any anomaly forcing, such that whatever surface mass balance (SMB) and ocean forcing was used in the initialization technique would continue unchanged. The second initMIP experiment ('asmb') that also needs to be repeated for each new model version is forcing with a schematic SMB anomaly.
Atmospheric forcing: SMB and temperature anomalies
General intro on forcing approach, why anomalies of SMB? 1. More robust forcing signal. 2. applicable to a large ensemble of models
Before applying SMB anomalies, ISMs will need to be initialized by applying a baseline SMB (either a time series or a climatology). ISMIP6 will provide SMB climatologies for the reference period (January 1995 to December 2014) from the same models computing the anomalies. ISMs can use these these climatologies for spin-up, if desired, but are free to use their own preferred SMB forcing.
Elevation feedbacks have been shown to be important in century-scale simulations. For example, Le clec’h et al. (2017) considered differences between no coupling (SMB independent of z), one-way coupling (i.e., correcting SMB outputs for ISM topography changes), and two-way coupling (allowing ice-sheet topographic changes to feed back on the RCM simulation.) Their results suggest that one-way coupling is sufficient to represent elevation feedbacks until the end of the 21st century. For large topographic changes on longer timescales, it might be necessary to incorporate two-way feedbacks, which are beyond the scope of the standalone ISM effort (but will be considered in the ISMIP6 coupled GCM-ISM experiments).
Provided forcing data sets
ISMIP6 will provide surface forcing datasets for the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) based on CMIP global climate model (GCM) simulations. The GCM output is re-interpreted through higher-resolution regional climate models (RCMs). The later allows to capture narrow regions at the periphery of the Greenland ice sheet with large surface mass balance (SMB) gradients, which are not captured by CMIP5 GCMs.
For CMIP6, many of the GCMs that have indicated participation in ISMIP6 now use multiple elevation classes to downscale SMB to finer grid resolution. Once these models have completed the CMIP6 projections, our goal is to include additional ISMIP6 projections using SMB downscaled via elevation class. HG:Move to somewhere else?
For the ISMIP6 projections based on CMIP5 GCMs, the surface forcing datasets were prepared by Xavier Fettweis, using the MAR regional climate model. RCM downscaling can take account of modest future topography/extent changes, and thus cope with the fact that individual ISM runs may not use exactly the same geometry. All RCM runs use a fixed topography, but vertical SMB gradients for each grid cell are derived using the method described by Franco et al. (2012). At each location the vertical gradient in SMB is found by summing and averaging pairwise differences in the nearest neighbor cells. This vertical gradient is used to downscale the SMB (15 km) to a finer grid (1 km), allowing resolution of steep topography that is not represented accurately on the coarse grid. The same information will be used to parameterise the SMB-height feedback in the projections. In addition, MAR calculates a potential SMB term for areas that are outside of the observed ice sheet extent, allowing application to ISMs with ice lying outside the MAR ice-sheet mask. However, experience with initMIP has shown that large variations in ice-sheet extent can lead to considerable bias in the projections. We therefore propose a method (see below) for models with large difference from the observed ice sheet extent, to remap the SMB anomaly to the individual modelled ice sheet geometry.
The atmospheric forcings consist of annual anomalies of SMB and surface temperature, along with a fields to represent the dependence of SMB and surface temperature on elevation (dSMBdz, dTdz). SMB is needed by ISMs to compute mass changes at the surface, and surface temperature (i.e., the ice temperature at the base of the snow, as distinct from the 2-m air temperature or skin temperature) is used by many ISMs as an upper boundary condition in the ice temperature calculations.
The SMB anomaly aSMB is given in units [kg m-2 s-1] in yearly values, one year per file. It should be applied constant over a full year and step change at the beginning of a new year. To convert to units [m yr-1] typically used in an ice sheet model, multiply the netcdf variable by 31556926 s/yr, 1/1000 m3/kg and by the density ratio rhow/rhoi:
aSMB [m yr-1] = aSMB [kg m-2 s-1] * 31556926 / 1000 * (1000/rhoi), where rhoi is your specific ice density (typically 917.0 or similar).
The SMB and its anomalies will be provided on the ISMIP6 1 km standard ice sheet grid for Greenland. ISMs will then horizontally interpolate the anomaly forcing conservatively from the standard grid to their native grids.
The SMB change with surface elevation dSMBdz is given in units [kg m-2 s-1 m-1] in yearly values, one year per file. To parameterise the SMB-height feedback, the SMB has to be corrected by dSMBdz * h-h_ref, updated every full year, where h and h_ref are the modelled surface elevation the initial modelled ice sheet surface elevation, respectively.
The ISMIP6 standard grid has a horizontal resolution of 1 km and uses the projection EPSG:3413. Note that this grid is different than that used in initMIP-Greenland. We have changed to the new grid because it's projection is used by many observational datasets that are key input for ice sheet models.
Let SMB_ref(x,y) denote the SMB used to initialize the ISM, and let h_ref(x,y) denote the ice sheet surface elevation at the end of the initialization. If a time-dependent SMB is used for spin-up, then SMB_ref(x,y) is the average over the reference period.
Here we propose two different methods for implementation of atmospheric forcing, depending on how close the ice sheet mask at the end of the initialization is to the observed ice sheet mask, the one assumed by the RCM.
Method 1: when the ice sheet mask is similar to the observed
This will typically be the case for ice sheet models that use data assimilation in their initialization, but could be the case for other modelling approaches. For those models, ISMIP6 provides aSMB(x,y,t) at h_rcm(x,y), along with dSMBdz(x,y,t). Here, aSMB is the time-dependent SMB anomaly in a changing climate, computed in an RCM with fixed surface topography h_rcm, and dSMBdz(x,y,t) is the time-dependent vertical gradient of SMB. aSMB and dSMBdz will be provided on an annual basis and should be updated every full year.
Given aSMB(x,y,t) and dSMBdz(x,y,t) on the standard grid, the ISM will horizontally interpolate these fields to its local grid. Then during runtime, the SMB at a given time and location is computed as
SMB(x,y,t) = SMB_ref(x,y) + aSMB(x,y,t) + dSMBdz(x,y) * [h(x,y,t) - h_ref(x,y)],
where h(x,y,t) is the time-dependent surface elevation. ISMs will likely need to implement code changes to handle the lapse-rate correction. The models will not need h_rcm(x,y) to compute SMB, but it is provided for reference. Since dSMBdz is computed at h_rcm and is not given as a function of z, this approach may be inaccurate if h_ref is significantly different from h_rcm.
The datasets can be obtained via the ISMIP6 ftp server (email firstname.lastname@example.org to obtain the login information).
A Test data set is available for MAR3.9-MIROC5-RCP85 at ftp://cryoftp1.gsfc.nasa.gov/ISMIP6/Atmosphere_Forcing/Greenland/
Method 2: when the ice sheet mask is very different from the observed
Note: google doc says that the text below needs to be altered to include dSMBdz_ltbl and that the lapse rate needs to be included. The google doc is https://docs.google.com/document/d/1fVs6XQqnNbpM-H8b28w-PwhLnZ5Rwe0v0Z04rE-x8eM/edit
This will typically be the case for ice sheet models that use a glacial-interglacial spinup in their initialization, but could also be the case e.g. for other models that fully relax to a suboptimal SMB. For those models, ISMIP6 will generate a time-dependent SMB anomaly, aSMB(x,y,t) and dSMBdz(x,y,t), which is specific for the geometry of a given modelled initial state.
where b is a basin number (e.g., Greenland might be divided into ~20 discrete ice-flow basins analogous to watersheds), and h is surface elevation. aSMB_ltbl(b,h,t) takes the form of a lookup table, which is constructed as described by Goelzer et al. (2018, in prep). ISMIP6 will generate this dataset for participating ice sheet models.
Forcing is provided in this format to address the deficiencies of method (1) when h_ref(x,y) differs significantly from h_rcm(x,y). For example, consider a near-coastal Greenland grid cell with h_rcm = 100 m. Suppose the spun-up ISM has a relatively advanced ice margin, with h_ref = 500 m in this cell. Then, instead of using aSMB from the RCM in this location, it is more appropriate to use aSMB from a location in the same basin, but at higher elevation. The lookup table provides this information.
There are several ways an ISM might apply the lookup table. First, consider the case that elevation changes are modest on the time scale of interest, so that at a given location, h(x,y,t) is not too different from h_ref(x,y). Then, given aSMB_ltbl(b,h,t), the ISM would loop through each grid cell, identify the basin, and interpolate between adjacent h values in the table to compute the local SMB anomaly aSMB(x,y,t) at h_ref(x,y). (Near the margin between basins; values from two or more basins might be included in a weighted sum; see Goelzer et al. 2018 for details.) During the run, SMB is computed as
SMB(x,y,t) = SMB_ref(x,y) + aSMB(x,y,t).
This is formally the same as (1), but with the lapse rate correction omitted because elevation dependence has been incorporated in aSMB. Runtime code changes would not be needed for ISMs that already can run initMIP-Greenland.
question Sophie to Heiko, Bill and Jonathan: Can we find a way to better define how one would decide if 'h(x,y,t) is close to h_ref(x,y)' versus 'h(x,y,t) is not deemed to be sufficiently close to h_ref(x,y)' so that clearer to reader which case they have to apply? Also, is the implementation needed for the second case clear enough?
Next, consider the case that elevation changes during the run are significant, such that h(x,y,t) is not deemed to be sufficiently close to h_ref(x,y). Then the ISM would need to interpolate from the lookup table to the time-varying elevation h(x,y,t). In this case, runtime code changes would be needed.
To obtain the datasets modelers simply need to provide ISMIP6 with h_ref(x,y). ISMIP6 would then compute aSMB for you. Please send an email at ismip6-at-gmail.com when you are ready to upload your h_ref(x,y), along with ice mask ANYTHING ELSE THAT MODELERS NEED TO SEND???
Oceanic forcing: Calving and frontal melt
ISMIP6 provides dataset of BLABLA for models that have their own methods for implementing oceanic induced retreat. In addition, modeling groups are encouraged to participate with the ISMIP6 Standard approach described below. The later is a simple retreat intended to be easily implemented by the majority of ISM taking part in ISMIP6. In addition, for models that wish to implement a more complex oceanic forcing, the ISMIP6 Greenland ocean focus group has developed a second methodology, described in ISMIP6 high resolution ocean melt rate approach.
ISMIP6 Standard approach imposes an empirically-derived, sector averaged retreat (Fig 2) as a function of climate forcing. This method was developed for ISMIP6 as a result of the ocean forcing focus group and is described in greater details in Slater et al. (in prep), and in the webinar: ftp://cryoftp1.gsfc.nasa.gov/ISMIP6/Ocean_Forcing/Greenland/Webinar_2018_11_08
Fig 2: Example of the empirically-derived retreat scenarios for the 7 sectors of the Greenland ice sheet, obtained with MIROC5, RCP8.5. TO DO: MODIFY FIG so that it shows the 7 ISMIP6 Basins
As described in the webinar, retreat will be imposed when the ice sheet geometry and ice front retreat scenario indicates that the land_ice_area_fraction_retreat mask is ice free for a given year. (Note the name was chosen so that it is closely related to the standard name land_ice_area_fraction -corresponding to variable name sftgif- in the ISMIP6 data request. For ease of communication, we use the longer standard name). Implementation for a specific ISM (also illustrated in Fig 3) requires the following steps:
1. Identify ice prone to outlet glacier retreat, by interpolating initial ice mask conservatively to 1 km ISMIP6 diagnostic grid to obtain a mask for ice fraction:
land_ice_area_fraction(x,y) = [0.0, …, 1.0] with 0.0 for ice free and 1.0 for ice covered
2. Calculate the distance to nearest ocean grid cell, or "distance_map", based on model ice fraction and observed mask of ice with potential ocean contact -> distance_map(x,y)
3. Calculate land ice fraction retreat based on distance map and retreat scenario:
land_ice_area_fraction_retreat(x,y,t) = [0.0, …, 1.0] with 0.0 for ice free and 1.0 for ice covered
4. Interpolate land_ice_area_fraction_retreat mask from diagnostic grid to model grid (conservatively)
5. Apply retreat in forward experiments (sub-grid implementation may be required for models with coarse resolutions to allow for partial retreat):
if land_ice_area_fraction_retreat(x,y,t) = 0.0, apply full retreat
if 0.0 < land_ice_area_fraction_retreat(x,y,t) < 1.0 apply partial retreat
Fig 3: Illustration of the steps required for the implementation of the oceanic retreat.
ISMIP6 will generate the land_ice_area_fraction_retreat masks (steps 2-3) for each model. As retreat is provided as a series of ice fraction masks, ice sheet models with coarse resolution should use a sub-grid approach. A suggestion is to apply an land_ice_area_fraction_retreat that is relative to the reference thickness. Models may have a different strategy for this sub-grid implementation.
question: do we want to give an eq for sub-grid implementation?"
To obtain the land_ice_area_fraction_retreat masks appropriate for your model, please submit your land_ice_area_fraction mask (step 1) to ISMIP6 on the 1km ISMIP6 grid (EPSG:3413) as a netcdf file called sftgif.nc. This file should be generated by conservative regridding. If your native grid is regular and on EPSG:3413, please provide your original modelled ice mask with x,y information instead. Upload your file to the directory ISMIP6/Ocean_Forcing/Greenland/Retreat_Implementation/MODELFILES/MODELNAME, where MODELNAME is the name of your model, and let us know via email that your file is uploaded.
ISMIP6 high resolution ocean melt rate approach was developed by the Greenland ocean focus group.
To DO: FINISH DESCRIPTION OF THE 2nd MORE COMPLEX METHOD AND SOME INFO ABOUT THE OTHER DATASETS AVAILABLE FOR GROUPS THAT WANT TO USE THEIR OWN METHODS
Requirements for the standard experiments
• Participants can and are encouraged to contribute with different models and/or initialisation methods
• Models have to be able to prescribe a given SMB anomaly
• Adjustment of SMB due to geometric changes in forward experiments is encouraged.
• Bedrock adjustment in forward experiment is allowed.
• The choice of model input data is unconstrained to allow participants the use of their preferred model setup without modification. Modelers without preferred data set choice can have a look at the ISMIP6 Datasets page for possible options.
• To allow for analysis, any modeling choice needs to be well documented. Please follow the guidance for model output described in XXXX
Requirements for the open experiments
IS THIS NEEDED? DO WE HAVE ANYTHING DIFFERENT TO ADD COMPAIRED TO THE STANDARD EXP?
Franco et al. (2012) FINIR
Goelzer, H., Nowicki, S., Edwards, T., Beckley, M., Abe-Ouchi, A., Aschwanden, A., Calov, R., Gagliardini, O., Gillet-Chaulet, F., Golledge, N. R., Gregory, J., Greve, R., Humbert, A., Huybrechts, P., Kennedy, J. H., Larour, E., Lipscomb, W. H., Le clec'h, S., Lee, V., Morlighem, M., Pattyn, F., Payne, A. J., Rodehacke, C., Rückamp, M., Saito, F., Schlegel, N., Seroussi, H., Shepherd, A., Sun, S., van de Wal, R., and Ziemen, F. A. (2018). Design and results of the ice sheet model initialisation experiments initMIP-Greenland: an ISMIP6 intercomparison, The Cryosphere, 12, 1433-1460, doi:10.5194/tc-12-1433-2018.
Le clec’h et al. (2017) FINIR
Shannon, S.R., Payne A.J., Bartholomew I.D., Van Den Broeke M.R., Edwards T.L., Fettweis X., Gagliardini O., Gillet-Chaulet F., Goelzer H., Hoffman M.J., Huybrechts P. (2013) Enhanced basal lubrication and the contribution of the Greenland ice sheet to future sea-level rise, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(35):14156-61.
Appendix 1 – Output grid definition and interpolation
All 2D data is requested on a regular grid with the following description. Polar stereo-graphic projection with standard parallel at 70° N and a central meridian of 45° W (315° E) on datum WGS84 (EPSG3413 projection). The lower left cell center is at (-720000m,-3450000m) with nx=1681 and ny=2881 cells in x and y-direction at full km positions (xmin = -720 km, xmax = +960 km, ymin = -3450 km, ymax = -570 km). The output should be submitted on a resolution adapted to the resolution of the model and can be 20 km, 10 km, 5 km, 2 km or 1 km. The data will be conservatively interpolated to 1 km resolution for archiving and 5 km resolution for diagnostic processing by ISMIP6.
If interpolation is required in order to transform the SMB forcing to your native grid, and transform your model variables to the ISMIP6 output grid (20 km, 10 km, 5 km, 2 km, 1 km), it is required that conservative interpolation is used. The motivation for using a common method for all models is to minimize model to model differences due to the choice of interpolation method.
Note: The previously requested regular grid was in polar stereo-graphic projection with standard parallel at 71° N and a central meridian of 39° W (321° E) on datum WGS84. The lower left corner is at (-800000 m, -3400000 m) and the upper right at (700000 m, -600000 m). This is the same grid (Bamber et al., 2001) used to provide the SMB anomaly forcing previously. This grid was changed to the EPSG3413 projection described above.
A1.1 Regridding Tools and Tips
- An overview of the regridding process can be found on the Regridding page.
- Regridding_with_CDO contains tools and tips that have been used by ISMIP6 members
Appendix 2 – Naming conventions, upload and model output data.
• one variable per file for all 2D fields
• all variables in one file for the scalar variables
• a completed readme file
A2.1 File name convention
TO DO: REVISE EXP NAME (LOOK AT CMIP6 GUIDANCE, INCLUDING HOW TO REGISTER MODEL) AND CHANGE INFO File name convention for 2D fields:
File name convention for scalar variables:
File name convention for readme file:
<variable> = netcdf variable name (e.g. lithk)
<IS> = ice sheet (AIS or GIS)
<GROUP> = group acronym (all upper case or numbers, no special characters)
<MODEL> = model acronym (all upper case or numbers, no special characters)
<EXP> = experiment name (init, ctrl or asmb)
For example, a file containing the scalar variables for the Greenland ice sheet, submitted by group “JPL” with model “ISSM” for experiment “ctrl” would be called: scalar_GIS_JPL_ISSM_ctrl.nc
If JPL repeats the experiments with a different version of the model (for example, by changing the sliding law), it could be named ISSM2, and so forth.
A2.2 Uploading your model output
Please upload your model output on the FTP server cryoftp1.gsfc.nasa.gov, and email email@example.com for the user name and latest password. Note sftp does not work!
TO DO: CREATE DIRECTORY FOR UPLOAD AND CHANGE INFO
After log in, go to the ISMIP6/initMIP/output directory via:
ftp> cd /ISMIP6/initMIP/output
and create a directory named <GROUP> with the following sub-directory structure:
initMIP output/ <GROUP>/ <MODEL>/ init/ ctrl/ asmb/
Create additional <MODEL> directories when participating with more than one model or model version.
An example of model output files can be found in /ISMIP6/initMIP/output/ISMIP6/REF.
A2.3 Model output variables and README file
The README file is an important contribution to the ISMIP6 submission. It may be obtained here or requested by email to ismip6-at-gmail.com
The variables requested in the table below serve to evaluate and compare the different models and initialization techniques. Some of the variables may not be applicable for your model, in which case they are to be omitted (with explanation in the README file). Also, specify missing values in your netcdf file where needed, and fields should be undefined outside of the ice mask.
We distinguish between state variables (e.g. ice thickness, temperatures and velocities) and flux variables (e.g. SMB). Flux variables are defined as positive when the process adds mass to the ice sheet and negative otherwise. Note the different treatment for state variables (snapshots) and fluxes (time average). The standard should be averaging over all native time steps for yearly scalar output and for 5 year periods for 2D fields. Please specify how your reported flux data has been averaged over time in the README file.
Example model output files can be found in /ISMIP6/initMIP/output/ISMIP6/REF on the ftp server.
|Variable||Dim||Type||Variable Name||Standard Name||Units||Comment|
|2D variables requested every five years, starting at t=0, snapshots for type ST and as five year average for type FL|
|Ice thickness||x,y,t||ST||lithk||land_ice_thickness||m||The thickness of the ice sheet|
|Surface elevation||x,y,t||ST||orog||surface_altitude||m||The altitude or surface elevation of the ice sheet|
|Bedrock elevation||x,y,t||ST||topg||bedrock_altitude||m||The bedrock topography (unchanged in forward exps.)|
|Geothermal heat flux||x,y||C||hfgeoubed||upward_geothermal_heat_flux_at_ground_level||W m-2||Geothermal Heat flux (unchanged in forward exps.)|
|Surface mass balance flux||x,y,t||FL||acabf||land_ice_surface_specific_mass_balance_flux||kg m-2 s-1||Surface Mass Balance flux (for areas covered by ice only)|
|Basal mass balance flux||x,y,t||FL||libmassbf||land_ice_basal_specific_mass_balance_flux||kg m-2 s-1||Basal mass balance flux (for areas covered by ice only)|
|Ice thickness imbalance||x,y,t||FL||dlithkdt||tendency_of_land_ice_thickness||m s-1||dHdt|
|Surface velocity in x||x,y,t||ST||uvelsurf||land_ice_surface_x_velocity||m s-1||u-velocity at land ice surface|
|Surface velocity in y||x,y,t||ST||vvelsurf||land_ice_surface_y_velocity||m s-1||v-velocity at land ice surface|
|Surface velocity in z||x,y,t||ST||wvelsurf||land_ice_surface_upward_velocity||m s-1||w-velocity at land ice surface|
|Basal velocity in x||x,y,t||ST||uvelbase||land_ice_basal_x_velocity||m s-1||u-velocity at land ice base|
|Basal velocity in y||x,y,t||ST||vvelbase||land_ice_basal_y_velocity||m s-1||v-velocity at land ice base|
|Basal velocity in z||x,y,t||ST||wvelbase||land_ice_basal_upward_velocity||m s-1||w-velocity at land ice base|
|Mean velocity in x||x,y,t||ST||uvelmean||land_ice_vertical_mean_x_velocity||m s-1||The vertical mean land ice velocity is the average from the bedrock to the surface of the ice|
|Mean velocity in y||x,y,t||ST||vvelmean||land_ice_vertical_mean_y_velocity||m s-1||The vertical mean land ice velocity is the average from the bedrock to the surface of the ice|
|Surface temperature||x,y,t||ST||litempsnic||temperature_at_ground_level_in_snow_or_firn||K||Ice temperature at surface|
|Basal temperature||x,y,t||ST||litempbot||land_ice_basal_temperature||K||Ice temperature at base|
|Basal drag||x,y,t||ST||strbasemag||magnitude_of_land_ice_basal_drag||Pa||Magnitude of basal drag|
|Calving flux||x,y,t||FL||licalvf||land_ice_specific_mass_flux_due_to_calving||kg m-2 s-1||Loss of ice mass resulting from iceberg calving. Only for grid cells in contact with ocean|
|Land ice area fraction||x,y,t||ST||sftgif||land_ice_area_fraction||1||Fraction of grid cell covered by land ice (ice sheet, ice shelf, ice cap, glacier)|
|Grounded ice sheet area fraction||x,y,t||ST||sftgrf||grounded_ice_sheet_area_fraction||1||Fraction of grid cell covered by grounded ice sheet, where grounded indicates that the quantity correspond to the ice sheet that flows over bedrock|
|Floating ice sheet area fraction||x,y,t||ST||sftflf||floating_ice_sheet_area_fraction||1||Fraction of grid cell covered by ice sheet flowing over seawater|
|Scalar outputs requested every full year, as snapshots for type ST as 1 year averages for type FL. The t=0 value should contain the data of the initialization.|
|Total ice mass||t||ST||lim||land_ice_mass||kg||spatial integration, volume times density|
|Mass above floatation||t||ST||limnsw||land_ice_mass_not_displacing_sea_water||kg||spatial integration, volume times density|
|Grounded ice area||t||ST||iareag||grounded_land_ice_area||m^2||spatial integration|
|Floating ice area||t||ST||iareaf||floating_ice_shelf_area||m^2||spatial integration|
|Total SMB flux||t||FL||tendacabf||tendency_of_land_ice_mass_due_to_surface_mass_balance||kg s-1||spatial integration|
|Total BMB flux||t||FL||tendlibmassbf||tendency_of_land_ice_mass_due_to_basal_mass_balance||kg s-1||spatial integration|
|Total calving flux||t||FL||tendlicalvf||tendency_of_land_ice_mass_due_to_calving||kg s-1||spatial integration|
Appendix 3 – Participating Models and Characteristics
Greenland Standalone Ice Sheet Modeling
|Model ID||Numerics||Ice Flow||Initialization||Initial Year||Initial SMB||Velocity||Bed||Surface||GHF||Res min||Res max|